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Guide to the CBD Industry

The CBD Industry can be confusing with all the different terms and words being used. We wanted to give a description of some of the most popular terms to help customers on their CBD journey and understanding different products.

Bioavailability
Refers to the amount and rate at which a supplement, or other substance is absorbed by the body’s circulatory system once introduced.

Broad-Spectrum
Broad-spectrum falls between full-spectrum and isolate formulations. Broad-spectrum contains a range of phytonutrients such as terpenes and more than one cannabinoid but doesn’t contain all the constituents found in hemp. Broad-spectrum is not as effective as full-spectrum products as it only contains a small selection of phytonutrients.

Full-Spectrum / Whole-Plant
A full spectrum / whole-plant CBD product is packed with all the substances / nutrients that are naturally found in the hemp plant - cannabinoids, flavonoids, omegas, amino acids, minerals, terpenes, fatty acids, polyphenols and much more. These products give you CBD and phytonutrients that the entire hemp plant has to offer.

Isolate
An isolate is a singular, pure compound with all other plant matter removed e.g., 99% CBD. It comes in the form of a powder or crystalline.

Extract/Concentrate
Extracts/concentrates are more potent than standard products.

Cannabis Sativa
Cannabis Sativa belongs to the Cannabaceae family and includes hemp and narcotic type cannabis plants (marijuana). Cannabis sativa is an herbaceous flowering plant that grows annually and is native to Eastern Asia.

Cannabinoid
Cannabinoids is a class of naturally occurring, biologically active chemical constituents found in the cannabis & hemp plant.

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol is a popular, naturally occurring cannabinoid found in the hemp. CBD does not have psychoactive effects and is non-intoxicating. Cannabidiol’s abbreviation is CBD.

Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)
CBDA is the precursor to CBD (acidic form). When CBDA is heated (decarboxylated), it converts into CBD (neutral form).

Carrier Oil
Carrier oils are oils used to dilute products to make them ready for application. They are typically vegetable oils such as coconut or olive oil. For CBD, MCT oil (coconut) is the most popular carrier oil to use.

Certificate of Analysis (COA) / Lab Certificates
A Certificate of Analysis is document that confirms the product meets its product specification. CoA’s are generated as part of quality control.
Lab certificates or reports are extensive quantitative analysis of everything that is in the product. Lab testing needs to be completed by a third party, external laboratory to avoid bias and should detail batch numbers so products can be matched to the results.

CO2 Supercritical Extraction
CO2 extraction is separating one component from another using fluids in a supercritical state as the extracting solvent. The extracting solvent is CO2, and by applying specific temperatures and pressure, CO2 changes from gas to a supercritical fluid. This gently extracts plant components (CBD) from the plant’s material (hemp). This results in an oil.

Concentrate
Is a high potency extract of hemp plant with a purity of 80-99%. A concentrate will not have any additional ingredients. Concentrates include wax, shatter, crumble, live resin, or crystal isolate.

Decarboxylation
Decarboxylation involves removing a carboxyl from a molecule. When heat is applied to hemp, it activates and releases the acidic cannabinoids, to convert them from acidic forms to neutral forms (e.g. CBDA + heat = CBD). This happens to all cannabinoids.

Distillate
A distillate is the result of distillation. Distillation is separating substances from a liquid using condensation or boiling. A distillate is highly purified, thick liquid.

Endocannabinoid
Endocannabinoids are natural chemicals produced within the body (endo = within). Two examples are anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters.

Alcohol (Ethanol) Extraction
A popular extraction method using alcohol to pull out active constituents from plant material. Firstly, the plants are soaked in alcohol, such as ethanol, to remove plant material. Then the alcohol is removed through evaporation.

Hemp
Hemp is a type of Cannabis sativa plant, grown for many purposes. Hemp contains high amounts of CBD and other cannabinoids, but trace amounts of THC (less then 0.2%). For this reason, hemp does not have psychoactive effects and is legal to cultivate under licence.

Heavy Metals
Heavy metals are any metallic, chemical element that is toxic at low concentrations and has relatively high density, such as Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Mercury (Hg). Hemp is analysed for heavy metals as it easily absorbs these from the ground. It is important to ensure heavy metal quantities are low enough for safe consumption of products.

Marijuana
Marijuana is Cannabis that has high amounts of THC and carries psychoactive effects.

Micro-dosing
A technique that involves consuming small servings of a substance throughout the day, e.g. CBD.

MCT Oil
MCT stands for Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) and is a chain of fats. They are easily digested due to their short length. This is why they are used as a carrier oil for CBD. MCT oil is extracted from coconut as it contains over 50% medium chain fats.

Phytocannabinoid
Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids found in the cannabis or hemp plant (phyto = plant). Phytocannabinoids mimic endocannabinoids that are produced in the body. THC, CBD, CBG are all examples of phytocannabinoids. There are at least 113 various phytocannabinoids in the cannabis and hemp plant.

Pesticides
Chemicals that kill pests such as rodents, weeds, fungi, and insects. They are used to protect plants from pests. Pesticides include herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides.

Phytonutrients
Nutrients found in plants (phyto = plants). They are also known as phytochemicals.
Plants produce phytonutrients as protection against UV rays and insects, and they give plants their bright colours.

Psychoactive
A substance that alters brain function by interacting with the central nervous system. Psychoactive substances can result in altered mood, cognition, perception, consciousness, or behaviour.

Sublingual
Sublingual means ‘under the tongue’ and comes from Latin. It is a method of administration where the product is placed under the tongue where it is readily absorbed into the blood vessels and circulate throughout the body.
Solvent
A chemical utilised to dissolve, extract or suspend another material.

Topical
A type of product that is applied directly to the skin. Topical products are balms, lotions, ointments, and creams.

Vertical Integration
Vertical integration is when a company owns and controls everything in its supply chain. This ensures a tighter quality control and maintaining their core values and practices across all parts of the production process.

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